The language of modalities is … a “transposed” language of norms. … Modal terms, normative terms and psychological terms are mutually irreducible. … The “means” of semantical statements…is no more a psychological word than is the “ought” of ethical statements or the “must” of modal statements

Inference and Meaning Section 5

  • Related to this quote.
  • What is the connection between the (alethic) modal sense of must and the normative sense of must?
  • Carnap uses ‘transposed’ to talk about an unquoted word used in a sentence as a transposed mode of speech (about use of a quoted-word).
    • Examples:
      • “Red is a quality.” vs “‘Red’ is a one-place predicate.”
      • “All ’s are necessarily ’s”. vs the license to infer statements from statements.