Exemplification is a ‘quasi-semantical’ relation, and it (and universals1) are “in the world” only in that broad sense in which the ‘world’ includes linguistic norms and roles viewed (thus in translating) from the standpoint of a fellow participant.

Naming and Saying

  • This plays off Carnap’s notion of ‘quasi-syntactical’.
  • There’s the narrow view of ‘the world’, that’s the world that science is the measure of all things. And the broader view of the world that has things like rules.


  1. e.g. redness, lionhood