An example of Leibniz’s: consider a map of the United States. What is it that gives the map its representational character? What makes it a map of something? This is related to the question of the difference between a sign vs piece of wood.

Leibniz argues the representation comes from the fact that we can make inferences, based on map-facts, about facts about the world. (E.g. we can infer froma wavy-blue line between these dots means that one must cross a river to go from this city to that city).

We can use this to distinguish facts about the map and the genuine map-facts.

This example highlights the holistic character of representation: it is the homomorphism from the map (as a whole) onto the Earth’s surface topology (as a whole) that gives meaning.

This example also highlights the lawfulness / subjunctive-robustness of representation: by taking it to be a map, we can say that, if the terrain were different, the map would be different.